It is not often that the fate of an insect stimulates a major reevaluation of land management practices, but in Britain's peatlands, a slender long-legged insect known as the crane fly has done just that. The crane fly is a vital source of food for birds such as golden plovers and curlews, but its populations currently are unstable as a result of climate change and human activities that have caused large wetland areas to dry out. And as the flies disappear, populations of the birds that depend on them are likely to spiral into steep decline, which is why conservationists are now searching for ways to protect crane flies.
According to new research published in the journal Global Change Biology, there might be a practical solution to crane fly conservation—adapt existing peatland management strategies to maintain or increase soil moisture, a necessity for the survival of crane flies. Indeed, the wetter the peatlands, the better, and in addition to benefiting crane flies and populations of their avian predators, restoring soil moisture could render peatlands more resilient to climate change.
Warmer summers and longer dry spells associated with climate change are major threats to Britain's uplands, which house some 15 percent of the world's peatlands. Compounding the threat of climate change is the fact that large expanses of peatland habitat have already lost substantial amounts of moisture as a result of artificial draining to provide water for agricultural activity in upland areas. The majority of artificial drains were built in the 20th century, and some have since been blocked in an effort to improve peatland moisture and water quality. However, many drains remain open.
In the latest study, researchers examined the relationship between drain-blocking, soil moisture, and crane fly populations. After comparing areas still susceptible to draining with areas where drains had been blocked, they found that peatlands with blocked drains were wetter and had larger populations of crane flies.
Moisture and temperature play key roles in the crane fly (family Tipulidae) life cycle. In summer and fall, female crane flies each lay between 300 and 400 eggs in damp areas. The eggs hatch within about 11 to 15 days, and the larvae, known as leatherjackets because of their tough outer covering, feed on roots and decaying plant matter in peat soils. When temperatures warm in spring and summer, the larvae emerge and become adult flies. However, when conditions are dry or too warm, large numbers of crane fly larvae die, causing precipitous declines in adult population size. In particularly bad years in drained peatlands, populations may be reduced by as much as 95 percent.
Hence, as climate change continues, if soil moisture in peatlands is not restored crane fly populations in some areas could decline to all-time lows. This would be disastrous for the Eurasian golden plover (Pluvialis apricaria) in particular, since plover chicks thrive when crane flies are abundant. Scientists have warned that if peatlands are not restored, and if the golden plover is unable to adapt to other sources of food, the species could become extinct within the next 100 years.
Soil moisture also plays an important role in enabling peatlands to sequester carbon. In fact, worldwide, peatlands store twice the amount of carbon as forests, ranking peatlands among the most important carbon stores on land. But as they dry out, they lose their ability to store carbon. Hence, management projects aimed at restoring moisture levels in peatlands is vital not only for the protection of wildlife that inhabits these vulnerable ecosystems but also for helping with efforts to mitigate the impact of climate change.
Kara Rogers is the senior editor of biomedical sciences at Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. She is also a member of the National Association of Science Writers and a contributor to the Britannica Blog, where she runs a series called Science Up Front. She holds a Ph.D. in Pharmacology/Toxicology, but enjoys reading and writing about all things science. You can follow her on Twitter at @karaerogers.
This post also appears on the Britannica Blog.